Wednesday, 26 October 2016

The Season Ticket

Dundee Rep
Three stars

It's a black and white world for Gerry, the football daft fifteen year old who forms the heart of Lee Mattinson's play, adapted from Jonathan Tulloch's novel and filmed as Purely Belter sixteen years ago. Gerry came into that world kicking and screaming, and he's been kicking and screaming ever since. This is the case whether it's in reaction to the brutality he's grown up with while holed up in a Gateshead housing estate with his mum Dee and sister Claire, or whether it's for Newcastle United, the team that has become the saviour of Gerry and his pal Sewell. If only they could experience the communal thrill of a game first hand, their lives would be complete.

This is how the pair end up embarking on a fundraising spree that includes breaking and entering their head teacher's house and 'twocking' – stealing - anything they can lay their hands on in order to be able to afford a pair of season tickets. Things don't go to plan for the lads, alas, in Katie Posner's slightly sprawling production for Northern Stage and Pilot Theatre.

Scenes are punctuated by a recorded commentary, while references are updated to include Newcastle United owner Mike Ashley and manager Rafael Benitez. The show is carried by Niek Versteeg and Will Graham as Gerry and Sewell, who lead a six-strong cast in what becomes a classic quest for heroes, even if Gazza and Alan Shearer are long past their prime. The result is an unsentimental rites of passage that takes in the darker edges of fractured family life, but still manages to offer some kind of hope.

The Herald, October 27th 2016


April De Angelis

Things changed when April De Angelis turned fifty. Here she was, an independent woman and successful playwright who had grown up with feminism, and who had a teenage daughter who took such hard won advantages for granted in a world where feminism itself had become a dirty word. What had happened, De Angelis wondered, both to her and the world she lived in.

The result of such a mid-life meltdown was Jumpy, a play about the stresses and strains of a fifty-something woman who had grown up protesting against nuclear weapons at Greenham Common, but whose teenage daughter couldn't care less about such things. First world problems such things may be, but Jumpy became a West End hit, and five years on is revived in a new production which opens this week at at the Royal Lyceum Theatre in Edinburgh.

“It came out of experience,” De Angelis says of the play. “I'd turned fifty, and my daughter had turned sixteen the same year, and that made me think about a lot of things, particularly about feminism. When I was growing up feminism was at the centre of everything. The Equal Pay Act had come in, and my generation reaped the benefits of that. I could speak out and say I wanted to be a writer. My mother's generation didn't have that, and it was different again for my daughter's generation. My daughter identifies as a feminist now, but she didn't when she was sixteen. Then she was more interested in clothes and how she looked.

“Now, there's an everyday feminism which hadn't happened five years ago, but there is also more mental illness in young women than there's ever been before, which I'm not surprised about, because there's all this pressure on women about how they should or shouldn't look, and about their shape and size matters.

“I suppose as well I was dealing with the fact that parenting had become much more liberal, and I didn't really know the rules, so was probably over-parenting. Then, turning fifty, and thinking about what that means, and with my daughter turning sixteen, it was a crisis year, really.”

Much of that crisis stemmed from a form of misogyny which has become increasingly vocal of late.

“Men flirt with women and women flirt with men, and that's fine, because that's human nature,” De Angelis says, “but there seems to be an aggressive edge there now sometimes. I can write Jumpy and say it's all going to be okay, but there's all this stuff going on, and you wonder really whether young women are going to be okay.”

De Angelis mentions the case of footballer Ched Evans, whose conviction for rape was recently quashed following a re-trial that saw his alleged victim's sexual history used as evidence.

“That was awful,” she says. “For someone to say, oh, you're not a virgin so we can't believe you is wrong, but I think it is a conservative time. We've got this hard austerity, there are wars going on, and these things breed conservative ideas, so you get some people marching because of a hatred of foreigners.

“With social media now as well everything erupts so quickly, and with the Ched Evans thing you had this collective anger from women that was really important. We've all got daughters, and you have to guard yourself and be responsible for each other.

De Angelis began her career as an actress with Monstrous Regiment, the feminist theatre company that existed throughout the 1970s and 1980s. This was at a time when identity politics was high on the agenda in what used to be called alternative theatre, with black, gay and feminist troupes all making their mark.

“Monstrous Regiment and other companies really shaped the theatrical landscape, as well as influencing how people think,” De Angelis says.”At that time, theatre wanted to change the world, and it really was a kind of revolution.”

De Angelis looked to the work of Caryl Churchill and Sarah Daniels, women writers who experimented with form as much as much as content.

“I remember going to see Top Girls,” De Angelis says of Churchill's seminal play that put various iconic women from history in the same room. “It's such a great play, and I was really inspired by it. I think Caryl Churchill really changed the DNA of theatre.”

Monstrous Regiment gave De Angelis her first writing commission, and in 1987, her debut play, Breathless, won an award at the Second Wave Young Women's Writers Festival. Since then, her work has been seen across the world, with Jumpy in particular making its mark internationally.

“The success of Jumpy really opened things up for me,” De Angelis says. “I got commissions off the back of it, and it really shows you what can happen when a play does well.”

Beyond Jumpy, De Angelis is currently working on an adaptation of the novels of Italian writer Elena Ferrante for the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester. Ferrante has recently come under public scrutiny, not for her internationally recognised work, but for the fact that she has chosen to write pseudonymously since she first came to prominence in the early 1990s. This year, a male novelist attempted to out Ferrante's real identity in a paper that analysed the historical and geographical content of her work. This month, a male journalist published an article that attempted to identify her through financial transactions regarding property and royalty payments. Such obsessive behaviour can be regarded as another form of violation.

“Isn't it awful” says De Angelis. “I mean, just leave her alone. There's no law that says you can't be anonymous in a way that means you might read the book without thinking about who the author is. Because she's really successful it's really bugged this male journalist, who's said how dare she be successful, and raked through her bins. It's about jealousy and revenge.”

Given that she too is a successful female writer, has De Angelis ever encountered jealousy from male colleagues?

“No,” she says. “The theatre is a really liberal, constructive place. Having said that, there still aren't many theatre buildings run by women, and there is still less work put on by women writers than men, and that's still the same in every profession.”

Five years after Jumpy first appeared, De Angelis has changed again. Her fiftieth birthday crisis has passed, and her daughter is no longer a stroppy teenager.

“That sixteen year old who used to stomp into the room in big heels is now a grown up young woman making her own way in the world. But young people are so full of life. They challenge you, as they should. It's a battle at times, a love and hate battle, but in the end it's all done for the best.”

Jumpy, Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, October 27-November 12.

The Herald, October 25th 2016


Sunday, 23 October 2016

23 Questions for October 23rd - What the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh's Board of Trustees need to answer on the day they close Inverleith House

1 - Would the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh's Board of Trustees agree that Inverleith House is a major international public artistic asset?

2 – If so, could the Board of Trustees explain why they have chosen to close Inverleith House down as a contemporary art gallery without notice?

3 - Could the Board of Trustees clarify what Creative Scotland's explicit expression of 'disappointment' with the Trustees' decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary artspace without notice might refer to?

4 – Given that the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is a publicly funded body, could the Board of Trustees provide the minutes of the meeting at which the decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery took place, presumably at the Board's quarterly meeting on October 5th 2016?

5 – As a publicly funded body, could the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh's Board of Trustees also provide a list of all those in attendance at the meeting where the decision was taken?

6 - Given that the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Inverleith House are public assets directly funded by the Scottish Government and Creative Scotland, could the Board of Trustees clarify what level of public consultation was undertaken prior to their decision?

7 - Could the Board of Trustees also clarify who contributed to any public consultation?

8 – Could the Trustees also clarify where any information collected by any public consultation is published as is required by law concerning any public body?

9 – Creative Scotland's 'disappointment' at the decision taken by the Board of Trustees suggests that Inverleith House is at no financial risk in the immediate future. Can the Board confirm that is the case?

10 – It is a matter of public record that Creative Scotland awarded the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh some £80,000 project funding for four projects at Inverleith House during 2016/17. The projects were British Art Show 8, a thirtieth anniversary exhibition, a publication and the writing of a Strategic Report to provide recommendations for the sustainable future of Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery between 2017-2021. Could the Board of Trustees clarify what recommendations were made for the future of Inverleith House in the Strategic Report?

11 - If the recommendations contained within the Strategic Report were that Inverleith House should continue as a contemporary art gallery, can the Board of Trustees clarify why they did not vigorously pursue these recommendations, but instead chose to close the building as a contemporary art gallery instead?

12 - Could the Board of Trustees clarify what was meant by the phrase quoted in the Herald newspaper and attributed to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh's Regius Keeper that Inverleith House is unable to “wash it's face” financially?

13 - Given the use of the phrase, does the Board of Trustees regard the public assets of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Inverleith House solely as a business?

14 - Could the Board of Trustees clarify why Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Inverleith House staff have been advised not to speak to the media?

15 - If Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Inverleith House staff were to speak to the media, could the Board of Trustees clarify what the consequences of such actions would be?

16 - Could the Board of Trustees clarify why the Strategic Report for the publicly funded Inverleith House and paid for by public money from Creative Scotland is being withheld from public and press scrutiny?

17 – The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh received substantial amounts of National Lottery funding in 1990 and 2003 for the upgrade of Inverleith House specifically in relation to the building's status as a contemporary art gallery. As the Board of Trustees has stated that Inverleith House will no longer function as a contemporary art gallery, will the change of use mean that at least £143,000 worth of National Lottery funds given to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh will now be returned?
18- If the Board of Trustees does not intend returning at least £143,000 worth of National Lottery funds granted to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in relation to Inverleith House's specific status as a contemporary art gallery, given the intended change of use of the building, could they clarify why this is the case?

19 – Could the Board of Trustees clarify what future use for Inverleith House is planned, provide costings and clarify the financial advantages of this option, alongside any accurately costed options for alternative uses of the building discussed at the meeting of October 5th 2016?

20 - Could the Board of Trustees confirm if any discussions have taken place in respect of any proposals to convert Inverleith House into a hotel, wedding venue or other commercial use?

21 – There has been a widespread sense of outrage and dismay generated in response to the Board of Trustees' decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery, both among the artistic community and the wider public who the Board of Trustees are accountable to. Would the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh's Board of Trustees agree that those who took the decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery are responsible for a major act of cultural and civic vandalism caused by their actions, and which undermines the international importance of Scottish art?

22 – If the Board of Trustees does not agree that those who took the decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery are responsible for a major act of cultural and civic vandalism, in what ways do they believe the decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery is of any benefit to the public?

23 – If the Board of Trustees does agree that those who took the decision to close Inverleith House as a contemporary art gallery are responsible for a major act of cultural and civic vandalism, could they clarify in what ways they believe those responsible for the decision to close Inverleith House as a gallery are in any way fit for office?

Product, October 23rd 2016


Friday, 21 October 2016

Grain in the Blood

Tron Theatre, Glasgow
Four stars

Sacrifice is everywhere in Rob Drummond's brooding new play, co-produced here between the Tron and the Traverse Theatre in Edinburgh, where it visits following its Glasgow run. It's there in Andrew Rothney's near silent figure of Isaac, on compassionate leave from the prison he's been rotting in since he attempted to bring life through death during harvest time in his rural home years before. Now he's back, and with John Michie's stoic prison chaperone Burt watching over him, it's his twelve-year old daughter Autumn who needs saved. Isaac's mother Sophia would do anything to see Autumn survive, as would Frances Thorburn's Violet, who would kill to replace her own lingering loss.

There's an eerie sense of foreboding that looms large in Traverse artistic director Orla O'Loughlin's production that is ushered in by Michael John McCarthy's cracked chamber folk score. Even at it's most sombre, however, Drummond's script is peppered with grim one-liners delivered mercilessly by Blythe Duff as Sophia and John Michie's stoic Burt with barely a deadpan glance.

At the play's brutal heart, however, is a revelatory performance by Sarah Miele as Autumn, who carries the play right to the end, taking control of her own and everybody else's destiny with a premature wisdom beyond her years. This helps her see through all the hand-me-down hokum so much clearer than everybody else in such an unsentimental fashion. Even so, Autumn enjoys the ritual as a game as much as she does the fateful round of Truth or Dare at her birthday dinner. It is here the knives really come out in a dark tale where broken lives continue come what may.

The Herald, October 24th 2016


Thursday, 20 October 2016

Kai Lumumba Barrow and Eric A. Stanley - Arika - Episode 8: Refuse Powers' Grasp

When the Arika organisation started out as producers of experimental music festivals, their
work on Instal at the Arches in Glasgow and later Kill Your Timid Notion at Dundee Contemporary Arts broke the mould in terms of bringing major international left-field musicians and sound-makers to Scotland.

As the artistic landscape shifted, the ground Arika occupied opened up for a new generation of sonic explorers to put on their own events, perhaps inspired by some of the veteran acts they'd seen at Instal and Kill Your Timid Notion. As more experimental music festivals grew up around them, Arika moved beyond sound to consider the social and political forces that gives art its meaning.

The end result has been a series of weekend-long Episodes, in which Arika have hosted various provocations, discussions, performances and screenings which create a dialogue where art and activism meet in a kind of counter-cultural salon.

This weekend, Episode 8 – Refuse Powers' Grasp, looks at ideas that stem largely from the idea of the prison-industrial complex. The term was first coined by veteran black civil rights activist Angela Davis in the title of a speech she gave in 1997 which became the basis of her book of the same name. It refers to how prisons are used as an ideological tool in which oppressed minorities are invariably incarcerated more than a privileged majority. This is particularly the case in relation to queer, black and trans people.

Refuse Powers' Grasp brings together an international array of thinkers, artists, writers and performers to square up to the forces that attempt to cage such minorities as they argue for progressive alternatives to prison.

One of the highlights of Episode 8 looks set to be a presentation by Gallery of the Streets, a radical performance troupe led by director, activist and prison abolitionist Kai Lumumba Barrow, which uses everyday spaces as sites of resistance.

In Glasgow, Barrow will work with local groups to oversee an open rehearsal for her ongoing development of (b)reach: The Fugitive Chronicles. With the title drawn from Marge Piercy's 1976 feminist science-fiction novel, Woman on the Edge of Time, the show is a black queer retelling of Percy's story about a former prisoner committed in a mental hospital who begins to communicate with a being from a utopian future. While totalitarianism and other of society's ills have been wiped out in that future, the death penalty remains in place.

“We are going to be doing an experiment,” says Barrow, who since the 1970s has been at the forefront of abolitionist grassroots organising in the United States. “We're looking at a model for social change, working with our bodies to visualise and verbalise our stories concerning state violence, and doing that in a collaborative way.”

Barrow's activism includes co-founding Critical Resistance, a prison abolitionist organisation co-founded with Angela Davis and others. Barrow has worked with numerous other grassroots organisations, including the Provisional Government of the Republic of New Afrika, the Black Panther Newspaper Committee and Queers for Economic Justice. She formed Gallery of the Streets in 2010, and, using Black Feminist Theory as a jumping off point, has created temporary site-specific installations in collaboration with marginalised communities directly affected by existing hierarchies. The open rehearsal for (b)reach is the first stage of a much longer project that Barrow aims to complete by 2020.

“I've been trying to organise forms and ideas into something we're calling the praxis of imagination,” Barrow says. “I'll be using multiple artforms that work together to create a single story, and through all this, looking at how the imagination can be used as a tool for liberation.”

Also appearing at Episode 8 will be Eric A. Stanley, who, as well as being an assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Sexuality Studies at the University of California, co-edited the 2011 anthology, Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex, which has recently been republished in an expanded second edition by AK Press. Along with Chris Vargas, Stanley directed the 2006 film, Homotopia, and this year the pair made Criminal Queers, which will be screened at Episode 8.

Criminal Queers is a campy film we made with no budget over a ten year period” says Stanley. “It's quite funny, as probably most people who are in the film are going to be at Episode 8, but the film is a humorous way of looking at serious issues.”

Captive Genders opens with a foreword that looks back to the Stonewall riots that took place in 1969 after the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, was raided by police. The book brings together writing by current and former prisoners, activists, academics and others in an attempt to understand how race, gender and sexuality are played out and defined by the prison-industrial complex. In this way, the book highlights a sector of society whose struggles with incarceration are rarely seen in mainstream media.

“A lot of mainstream LGBT organisations have never thought critically about imprisonment,” says Stanley. “Mainstream LGBT politics has a disavowal of LGBT people who are incarcerated.”

One of the most high-profile trans figures currently imprisoned is Chelsea Manning, the U.S. Soldier who, as Bradley Manning, was court-martialled and sentenced to thirty-five years in a military prison after disclosing almost three quarters of a million classified military documents to WikiLeaks. Manning has written a chapter for the new edition of Captive Genders.

“Unfortunately,” says Stanley, “Chelsea Manning could spend the rest of her life in prison. She's a horrific example of all the things prison can do to you - a microcosm of what thousands of people are going through right now.”

Episode 8 – Refuse Powers' Grasp runs from October 21st-23rd at Tramway and The Art School, Glasgow. Full programme details can be found at

Product, October 2016

Where The Crow Flies

Scottish Storytelling Centre, Edinburgh
Three stars

The baby won't stop crying and scary men are shouting obscenities through the letterbox at the opening of Lisa Nicoll's curiously creepy new play produced by the Glasgow-based In Motion Theatre Company. Graffiti is sprayed across the walls of Carrie's house, and rubbish is rotting in the summer heat in the back garden. Just to add insult to injury, Emily has moved in next door, and is already invading Carrie's space enough to make her paranoid.

The cause of Carrie's siege mentality is her husband's imprisonment for a crime he says he didn't commit, and the bad lads left on the outside who say he did. Emily may not be in league with them, but she has a few secrets of her own, largely to do with her absent daughter Annabel.

Beth Morton's production begins with a kitchen-sink style set-up that looks at two very different women living alone with their pain, then lurches into psycho-thriller territory before Carrie and Emily come out the other side seemingly unscathed. This makes for an oddly overloaded seventy minutes that at times resembles an unholy alliance between Mike Leigh and Ken Loach if they'd worked on Tales of the Unexpected.

Keira Lucchesi and Angela Darcy invest an edgy humour into their respective portrayals of Carrie and Emily in a show that tours Scotland this month as part of the Scottish Mental Health Arts and Film Festival. Commissioned by the Scottish Government backed Sense over Sectarianism initiative and developed with women from Blackburn in West Lothian, Morton's production shows off the bonds that form between this oddest of couples as they learn how to survive together.

The Herald, October 20 2016


Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Inverleith House to Close as a Contemporary Art Gallery

It has been confirmed by the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh that Inverleith House, contained within its grounds, will no longer be used as a contemporary artspace. This comes after thirty years as a gallery, in which, under the curatorship of Paul Nesbitt, Inverleith House became a pioneering venue that showed early work by many Scottish artists alongside a bold international programme which has consistently sat alongside a parallel programme of botanical-based work.

Inverleith House has also presented more exhibitions by Turner Prize winners and nominees than any other gallery in the UK apart from the Tate Gallery in London. The gallery's current exhibition, I still believe in miracles... closes this weekend on October 23rd, after which the building's future is uncertain.

In a statement released on October 18th, RBGE said that 'After considerable consideration the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) has accepted that, in the interests of prioritising its core mission To explore, conserve and explain the world of plants for a better future, it must be pragmatic about the overall diversity of its wider commitments.

'As part of this, Inverleith House will no longer be dedicated to the display of contemporary art, and RBGE is looking at options for the alternative use of the building. RBGE will continue to use both the overall setting of the Garden and other existing indoor spaces to engage our visitors with art in the Garden environment. No member of staff will lose their job in the adjustment. The intention is very much that we intend to retain our reputation as an art venue across the board, be it for botanical art, illustration, performance, photography, sculpture and contemporary art.'

The statement went on to say that 'Through this change the organisation will remove the various inevitable financial risks attached to running a high-profile gallery. It will also free-up resources to concentrate more fully on its scientific and horticultural research and conservation work and provide greater scope to encourage public engagement with the environment.'

RBGE's decision comes two years after Inverleith House was unsuccessful in its bid for three year regular funding from Scotland's national arts funding body, Creative Scotland. Along with its predecessor, the Scottish Arts Council, Creative Scotland has supported Inverleith House's exhibition programme with £1.5m of public funding between 1994 and 2016. This includes an annual sum of approximately £80,000 of Flexible and Open Project funding for exhibitions, plus a capital award of £148,453 towards the cost of up-grading the provision of visitor facilities at the Inverleith House Gallery made in 2003.

Built in 1774 as the family home of Sir James Rocheid, Inverleith House was a part of the Inverleith estate sold to become the Royal Botanic Garden around 1820. In 1877, the House and its surrounding land was gifted to the Crown for the due purpose of extending the activities of the Royal Botanic Garden and for the enjoyment of the public. After restoration work following a fire, the building became the official residence of the RBG's Regius Keeper.

From 1960, Inverleith House became the inaugural home of the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, and in 1970 was given category B listed status by Historic Scotland. It opened in its current guise as an exhibition space managed by RBGE in 1986, with Nesbitt appointed curator.

It was arguably Nesbitt's vision that put Inverleith House on the map as an artspace, as he opened the House and its unique light up to a series of exhibitions by major artists that the two tranches of National Lottery funding received to upgrade the building, first in 1990, then in 2003, would arguably not have been forthcoming.

Artists who have made solo exhibitions for Inverleith who have won or who were nominated for the Turner Prize include Douglas Gordon, Richard Wright, Callum Innes, Jim Lambie, Cathy Wilkes, Karla Black and Mark Leckey. In 2012, Luke Fowler was nominated for the Turner for his show at Inverleith House. Other Scottish artists of note who have shown at Inverleith House include include Lucy McKenzie and Ciara Phillips. The list of artists showing work in I still believe in miracles...., reads like a Who's Who? of internationally renowned contemporary Scottish artists. The exhibition also features botanical drawings, plant models, and teaching diagrams from the garden’s archive and the Linnean society in London.

Other botanical-based works seen at Inverleith House include John Hutton Balfour’s Botanical Teaching Diagrams in 2003,The Dapuri Drawings in 2002, Stella Ross-Craig's Drawings of British Plants in 2001 and Rungiah and Givindoo's South Indian Botanical Drawings.

Edinburgh-based artist Alec Finlay, whose work has frequently been seen in outdoor environments, and whose father, Ian Hamilton Finlay, currently has work on display in I still believe in miracles... stated that 'It will be a matter of concern to the entire art community and audiences alike that the distinguished thirty year tradition of exhibiting art in what is commonly acknowledged to be one of the most beautiful venues in the UK is under question. The ability of the curator, Paul Nesbitt, to select artists suited to the graceful proportions of the building and the wonderful light has gone hand in hand with his ability to work with peers exhibiting botanical art. While RBGE is not responsible for provision in a way that conventional art galleries are, the tradition it has established is a precious reality.'

In response to RBGE's announcement, a Creative Scotland spokesperson said 'We are very disappointed that the Board of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh (RBGE) have taken the decision to cease operating Inverleith House as a dedicated contemporary art gallery. Over thirty years, under the stewardship of Paul Nesbitt, Inverleith House has built an international reputation as a place where contemporary art is curated and presented to the highest standards and in a truly unique setting. The importance of the gallery, alongside the work of Paul and his team, to contemporary visual art and artists in Scotland cannot be understated and its loss will be profoundly felt.
We understand the financial pressures that RBGE are under, like other publicly funded organisations. However, we would have hoped that the value that Inverleith House brings to the gardens, to the public, and to Scotland as a space for art and creativity could have been better recognised and result in a different decision. We look forward to hearing more about the plans for the wider exhibition programme in the Gardens. This decision by the RBGE Board precedes the publication of our Visual Arts Sector Review which, while highlighting the significant successes and strengths of visual art in Scotland, also underlines the challenges the sector faces and the barriers that prevent it from achieving its full potential.'

The List, October 19th 2016